Course Content
OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT
Definition and importance of management Functions of management Managerial roles Evolution of management thought Types of management environment
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PLANNING FUNCTION
Meaning and importance of planning Principles of planning Purpose of planning Types of plans Planning tools Process of planning Planning challenges Making plans effective Management by objectives
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ORGANIZING FUNCTION
Meaning and Importance of Organizing Structure and Designs of Organizations Principles of Organizing Process of Organizing Delegation Coordination Centralization and Decentralization Informal Organizations
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STAFFING FUNCTION
Meaning and Importance of Staffing Human Resource Planning Recruitment and Selection Training and Development Performance Management Reward Management Separation
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DIRECTING FUNCTION
Meaning and Importance of Directing Leadership Motivation Communication Group Dynamics Conflict Management
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CONTROLLING FUNCTION
Meaning and Importance of Controlling Elements of Control Characteristics of Effective Controls Control Process Role of Control in an Organization Tools of Controlling
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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Overview of Strategic Management SWOT Analysis Strategy Formulation Strategy Implementation Strategy Evaluation
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EMERGING ISSUES AND TRENDS
Organization Culture Ethics and Social Responsibility Managing Innovation and Change Diversity and Inclusion Corporate Governance Globalization
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Principles and Practices of Management
About Lesson

Training implies the act of increasing the knowledge and skills required for the efficient performance of a particular job. On the other hand, development means the growth of an individual in all aspects. 

Benefits of training

The main advantages of training are as follows:

  1. It increases the knowledge of workers in doing specific jobs
  2. It prepares workers for higher-level jobs by developing advanced skills in them.
  3. Training helps in earning higher remuneration and other monetary benefits to the workers as their productivity is increased.
  4. Training provides an opportunity for quick promotion and self-development
  5. Training develops adaptability among workers. They don’t worry when procedures and methods are changed 
  6.  Improves employee satisfaction and morale
  7. Training addresses employee’s weaknesses
  8. It reduces employee’s turnover
Kinds of training programs

Broadly training programs may be classified as follows:

  1. Internal training or On-the-job programs
  2. External training or Off-the-job programs

1.Internal training or on-the-job programs

Internal training, also known as on-the-job training, is training employees receive from their employers while working on the job. Employers provide training to new employees to teach them job skills and introduce them to workplace policies and procedures. Internal training methods use company resources and expertise to develop and deliver training. It is low-cost, informal, and improves existing training and employee communication. In addition, it facilitates employees in understanding and following their trainers quickly due to workplace familiarity.

Broad types of internal training programs

  1. Orientation or induction.It is designed to help new employees adjust to the company’s specialized job requirements and work methods. The new employee is first given a job description.
  2. Apprenticeship.It is one of the oldest forms of training. Under it, a worker is appointed as an apprentice. He is placed under the charge of a qualified senior worker. The apprentice learns the methods of work by observing and assisting his senior. 
  3. Delegation.It is a process whereby the responsibility and authority of a superior delegate to a subordinate. It gives the subordinate a sense of importance by giving him a task to complete and authority over physical and human resources.
  4. Promotions and transfers.Promotion or transfer in the case of an employee may cause a significant change in the nature of his duties and responsibilities. In the case of the former, it may also mean a rise in authority and remuneration, and perquisites.
  5. Refresher training or retraining.Refresher training is a type of retraining taken by people who are already qualified or assessed as competent in a field to update skills and knowledge to a new standard or ensure that no important skills or knowledge have been lost due to lack of use.
  6. Job rotation.Job rotation may be vertical (in which case it is the same as promotion or horizontal (in which case it may be called a transfer). The object of job rotation is employee development through the provision of diversified training. 

2.External training or off-the-job programs

External training is provided by outside consultants, specialists, or organizations. The various techniques of such training are as follow:

  1. Training by management institutions.Whereby such institutions offer professional training.
  2. Lectures, conferences, seminars, etc..Lectures can be used to teach workers analytical skills as well as knowledge. Large corporations can hire qualified lecturers to cater to the needs of various worker groups.
  3. Case study.The Harvard Business School in the USA developed case study training. It is frequently used to train business executives. As the name implies, a “case study” is a written account of a real-life organizational situation
  4.  Role-playing.A “role” is the expected behavior of a person when interacting with others. Role-playing is a training method where participants assume roles and act them out in a classroom. It tends to emphasize human emotions and relationships.
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