This refers to the stoppage of service or ending of the employment relationship for one reason or another and out of the payroll.
Forms of separation
1.Resignation: A resignation is a formal act of leaving an office or position. An election or appointment resignation is not the same as leaving a position at the end of a term. Resignation is when an employee chooses to leave a job rather than being fired.
2. Suspension: Suspension is an HR action in which an employee is sent home from work for a period of time, usually without pay, as a disciplinary measure.
3. Retirement: This is a period when you legally separate from work because you have attained the legally required age to do so. Permanent and pensionable employees in government service and parastatals continue receiving pension benefits until death
4. Retrenchment: This is a permanent separation due to economic reasons probably the employer is unable to pay his employees. Gratuity is paid to such workers.
Factors leading to retrenchment
- Poor business performance owing to a decline in market share.
- Poor management and inadequate planning
- Business mergers, takeovers, and divestment
- Employment of multi-skilled personnel capable of increasing productivity and responding to change
- Introduction of a new method of production.
- Introduction of organizational structures designed to enable quick decisions, fast responses, and empowered employee
5. Layoffs: Lay off or downsizing means an employee is temporarily suspended or permanently terminated from their job (collective layoff) for business reasons such as personnel management or organization reduction.
Factors that may lead to layoffs
- Breakdown of machinery
- Seasonal fluctuations in the market and loss of sales
- Technological reasons
6. Discharge/Termination: Employment termination or separation is the end of an employee’s employment relationship with an employer forced by the employer in the form of dismissal (firing)
Frequent causes of discharge
- Violation of rules
7. Interdiction: This is the separation of an employee from the wrong exercising of his powers and functions pending an investigation of the charges made against him. One is normally under half-pay until the investigations are over, and if found not guilty, you are reinstated with full pay.
8. Dismissal: This is the termination of services due to some misconduct or unauthorized duty absently. It is many, at times, a way of punishment, and no benefits are paid in dismissal.The grounds for dismissal must be reasonable, and where there is unfair dismissal, the employer may be asked to:
- Re-engage the employee
- Compensate the employee
- Give a statement of right. This happens if the employee gets another job and wants his former employer to clear his records stating that the dismissal was unfair
8. Redundancy: This is when an employee’s job ceases to exist. The employer is required to look for an alternative job for his employee. Also, he is expected to make payments for employees who work for more than 16 hours per week, and these payments are from the redundancy fund, which the employers are expected to be contributing.